《Contra Arianos》 2.15
Chapter XV.—Texts explained; Fifthly, Acts ii. 36. Chapter XV.—Texts explained; Fifthly, Acts ii. 36. The Regula Fidei must be observed; made applies to our Lord’s manhood; and to His manifestation; and to His office relative to us; and is relative to the Jews. Parallel instance in Gen. xxvii. 29, 37. The context contradicts the Arian interpretation.
11. ( continued). The same is the meaning of the passage in the Acts which they also allege, that in which Peter says, that ‘He hath made both Lord and Christ that same Jesus whom ye have crucified.’ For here too it is not written, ‘He made for Himself a Son,’ or ‘He made Himself a Word,’ that they should have such notions. If then it has not escaped their memory, that they speak concerning the Son of God, let them make search whether it is anywhere written, ‘God made Himself a Son,’ or ‘He created for Himself a Word;’ or again, whether it is anywhere written in plain terms, ‘The Word is a work or creation;’ and then let them proceed to make their case, the insensate men, that here too they may receive their answer. But if they can produce nothing of the kind, and only catch at such stray expressions as ‘He made’ and ‘He has been made,’ I fear lest, from hearing, ‘In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth,’ and ‘He made the sun and the moon,’ and ‘He made the sea,’ they should come in time to call the Word the heaven, and the Light which took place on the first day, and the earth, and each particular thing that has been made, so as to end in resembling the Stoics, as they are called, the one drawing out their God into all things2272, the other ranking God’s Word with each work in particular; which they have well nigh done already, saying that He is one of His works.
12. But here they must have the same answer as before, and first be told that the Word is a Son, as has been said above2273, and not a work, and that such terms are not to be understood of His Godhead, but the reason and manner of them investigated. To persons who so inquire, the human Economy will plainly present itself, which He undertook for our sake. For Peter, after saying, ‘He hath made Lord and Christ,’ straightway added, ‘this Jesus whom ye crucified;’ which makes it plain to any one, even, if so be, to them, provided they attend to the context, that not the Essence of the Word, but He according to His manhood is said to have been made. For what was crucified but the body? and how could be signified what was bodily in the Word, except by saying ‘He made?’ Especially has that phrase, ‘He made,’ a meaning consistent with orthodoxy; in that he has not said, as I observed before, ‘He made Him Word,’ but ‘He made Him Lord,’ nor that in general terms2274, but ‘towards’ us, and ‘in the midst of’ us, as much as to say, ‘He manifested Him.’ And this Peter himself, when he began this primary teaching, carefully2275 expressed, when he said to them, ‘Ye men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man manifested of God towards you by miracles, and wonders, and signs, which God did by Him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves know2276.’ Consequently the term which he uses in the end, ‘made’, this He has explained in the beginning by ‘manifested,’ for by the signs and wonders which the Lord did, He was manifested to be not merely man, but God in a body and Lord also, the Christ. Such also is the passage in the Gospel according to John, ‘Therefore the more did the Jews persecute Him, because He not only broke the Sabbath, but said also that God was His own Father, making Himself equal with God2277.’ For the Lord did not then fashion Himself to be God, nor indeed is a made God conceivable, but He manifested it by the works, saying, ‘Though ye believe not Me, believe My works, that ye may know that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me2278.’ Thus then the Father has ‘made’ Him Lord and King in the midst of us, and towards us who were once disobedient; and it is plain that He who is now displayed as Lord and King, does not then begin to be King and Lord, but begins to shew His Lordship, and to extend it even over the disobedient.
13. If then they suppose that the Saviour was not Lord and King, even before He became man and endured the Cross, but then began to be Lord, let them know that they are openly reviving the statements of the Samosatene. But if, as we have quoted and declared above, He is Lord and King everlasting, seeing that Abraham worships Him as Lord, and Moses says, ‘Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven2279;’ and David in the Psalms, ‘The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on My right hand2280;’ and, ‘Thy Throne, O God, is for ever and ever; a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of Thy Kingdom2281;’ and, ‘Thy Kingdom is an everlasting Kingdom2282;’ it is plain that even before He became man, He was King and Lord everlasting, being Image and Word of the Father. And the Word being everlasting Lord and King, it is very plain again that Peter said not that the Essence of the Son was made, but spoke of His Lordship over us, which ‘became’ when He became man, and, redeeming all by the Cross, became Lord of all and King. But if they continue the argument on the ground of its being written, ‘He made,’ not willing that ‘He made’ should be taken in the sense of ‘He manifested,’ either from want of apprehension, or from their Christ-opposing purpose, let them attend to another sound exposition of Peter’s words. For he who becomes Lord of others, comes into the possession of beings already in existence; but if the Lord is Framer of all and everlasting King, and when He became man, then gained possession of us, here too is a way in which Peter’s language evidently does not signify that the Essence of the Word is a work, but the after-subjection of all things, and the Saviour’s Lordship which came to be over all. And this coincides with what we said before2283; for as we then introduced the words, ‘Become my God and defence,’ and ‘the Lord became a refuge for the oppressed2284,’ and it stood to reason that these expressions do not shew that God is originate, but that His beneficence ‘becomes’ towards each individual, the same sense has the expression of Peter also.
若他们认为救主并不是主和王，而是在他成为人和忍受了十字架才成为主。让他们搞清楚，他们乃是在公开的重新传讲撒摩撒他人的宣告。然而，根据我们在上面引用的经文，祂永远是主、是王，看见亚伯拉罕敬拜祂为主，摩西也说，‘当时，主将硫磺与火从天上耶和华那里降与所多玛和蛾摩拉（译者：根据英文重译）；’大卫在诗篇中则说，‘主对我主说：你坐在我的右边（译者：根据英文重译）；’和，‘神啊，你的宝座是永永远远的；你的国权是正直的；’和‘你的国是永远的国；’这些经文直接告诉我们，远在祂成为人之前，祂永远是王和主，也是父的像和道。道作为永远的主和王，就是直接告诉我们，彼得并不是教导子的素质是被造的，乃是主当祂成为人，借由十字架拯救万人的时候，祂对于我们的主权，并‘成为’万有的主和王。若他们仍执意要跟根据‘祂造（He made）’这段经文争辩而不愿意承认‘祂造’这段话指的是‘祂显现（He manifested），’不论是出于他们的忧虑，或是处于他们与基督为敌的目的，让他们再听听彼得的另一段诠释。若祂成为万有的主，并来到这些已经存有的事物之中，若主是万有的塑造者和永远的王，当祂成为人的时候，就在我们中间得了产业。这就是彼得的用词中并没有意指道的素质是一个作品的证明，而是在万有顺服祂后，救主的主权就临及万有。这与我们前面所说过的完全一致，而当我们再引用‘成为我的神和保障（译者：根据英文重译），’和‘耶和华（主）成为受欺压者的避难所（译者：根据英文重译）’这两处经文的时候，我们就很合理的看见这些表述并不是意指神是有起源的，而是祂的慈爱向着每一位‘成为’（它们的救赎），这也是彼得表述的意义。
14. For the Son of God indeed, being Himself the Word, is Lord of all; but we once were subject from the first to the slavery of corruption and the curse of the Law, then by degrees fashioning for ourselves things that were not, we served, as says the blessed Apostle, ‘them which by nature are no Gods2285,’ and, ignorant of the true God, we preferred things that were not to the truth; but afterwards, as the ancient people when oppressed in Egypt groaned, so, when we too had the Law ‘engrafted2286’ in us, and according to the unutterable sighings2287 of the Spirit made our intercession, ‘O Lord our God, take possession of us2288,’ then, as ‘He became for a house of refuge’ and a ‘God and defence,’ so also He became our Lord. Nor did He then begin to be, but we began to have Him for our Lord. For upon this, God being good and Father of the Lord, in pity, and desiring to be known by all, makes His own Son put on Him a human body and become man, and be called Jesus, that in this body offering Himself for all, He might deliver all from false worship and corruption, and might Himself become of all Lord and King. His becoming therefore in this way Lord and King, this it is that Peter means by, ‘He hath made Him Lord,’ and ‘hath sent Christ;’ as much as to say, that the Father in making Him man (for to be made belongs to man), did not simply make Him man, but has made Him in order to His being Lord of all men, and to His hallowing all through the Anointing. For though the Word existing in the form of God took a servant’s form, yet the assumption of the flesh did not make a servant2289 of the Word, who was by nature Lord; but rather, not only was it that emancipation of all humanity which takes place by the Word, but that very Word who was by nature Lord, and was then made man, hath by means of a servant’s form been made Lord of all and Christ, that is, in order to hallow all by the Spirit. And as God, when ‘becoming a God and defence,’ and saying, ‘I will be a God to them,’ does not then become God more than before, nor then begins to become God, but, what He ever is, that He then becomes to those who need Him, when it pleaseth Him, so Christ also being by nature Lord and King everlasting, does not become Lord more than He was at the time He is sent forth, nor then begins to be Lord and King, but what He is ever, that He then is made according to the flesh; and, having redeemed all, He becomes thereby again Lord of quick and dead. For Him henceforth do all things serve, and this is David’s meaning in the Psalm, ‘The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool2290.’ For it was fitting that the redemption should take place through none other than Him who is the Lord by nature, lest, though created by the Son, we should name another Lord, and fall into the Arian and Greek folly, serving the creature beyond the all-creating God2291.
因为神的儿子本身就是道，万有的主。而我们曾经伏在败坏的奴役和律法的定罪之下，然后为自己塑造了那些根本不存在的（译者：指假神），服侍它们，就像有福的使徒所说的，‘本来不是神的，’我们不认识神，并偏好无真理的事物。然后，我们就像那些被埃及欺压的古人一样的呻吟，当律法被‘接枝（engrafted）’到我们里面的时候，圣灵用那说不出来的叹息为我们祈求（神），‘耶和华我们的神啊，占有我们（译者：根据英文重译），’借着，‘祂就成为我们的避难所’和‘保障神（God and defense）,’好叫祂也成为我们的主。祂并没有一个起始，而是我们开始以祂为我们的主。在这个基础上，良善的神和主的父因着怜恤我们，并原因万人都认识祂，就让祂的儿子穿上了一个人类的身体，并成为一个名叫耶稣的人。在这个身体里面，祂为万人献上自己（为赎价），好叫他能够把万人从虚假的敬拜（译者：指拜偶像）和败坏中拯救出来。好叫祂成为万有的主与王。因着祂是如此成为主和王，这就是彼得说‘祂（父）把祂（子）造为主’和‘（祂）差遣了基督’这两句话的意思。这也就是说，父在把祂造为人（因为受造属于人）并不是单单把祂造成一个人，而是造祂，好叫祂成为万人的主，并使万人因被膏而归祂为圣。因为虽然道存有于神的形像里，祂却取了奴仆的样式。而取了肉身并没有把祂造成那位本质是主之道的仆人。反而是那位本质是主的道被造为人，让那个奴仆的形像被造成为万人的主和基督，好叫万人被圣灵分别为圣。作为神，当经上说‘成为神和保障，’以及‘我要作他们的神’的时候，并不是说祂成为一位与原先不一样的神，也不是说祂成为神，而是，祂的所是在祂喜悦的时候，成为有需要者的满足。所以，那位永远是主和王的基督，并不是在祂被差遣的时候，成为另一位更超越的主。祂也不是在成为主和王之后，才被造为肉身，来拯救万人，让祂再变成另一位聪慧和死亡的主。从今以后，祂的所作所为都是为了服侍（祂的父），这就是大卫在诗篇中，‘耶和华对我主说：你坐在我的右边，等我使你仇敌作你的脚凳，’这句话的意思。除了借由那位本质是主的祂（子）外，救赎不可能完成。面得我们这些子所造的人，会落入亚流和希腊人的愚蠢之中，造出另一个主，宁愿去服侍一个被造之物，而不要去服侍创造万有的神。
15.This, at least according to my nothingness, is the meaning of this passage; moreover, a true and a good meaning have these words of Peter as regards the Jews. For Jews, astray from the truth, expect indeed the Christ as coming, but do not reckon that He undergoes a passion, saying what they understand not; ‘We know that, when the Christ cometh, He abideth for ever, and how sayest Thou, that He must be lifted up2292?’ Next they suppose Him, not the Word coming in flesh, but a mere man, as were all the kings. The Lord then, admonishing Cleopas and the other, taught them that the Christ must first suffer; and the rest of the Jews that God was come among them, saying, ‘If He called them gods to whom the word of God came, and the Scripture cannot be broken, say ye of Him whom the Father hath sanctified and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son of God2293?’
16. Peter then, having learned this from the Saviour, in both points set the Jews right, saying, “O Jews, the divine Scriptures announce that Christ cometh, and you consider Him a mere man as one of David’s descendants, whereas what is written of Him shews Him to be not such as you say, but rather announces Him as Lord and God, and immortal, and dispenser of life. For Moses has said, ‘Ye shall see your Life hanging before your eyes2294.’ And David in the hundred and ninth Psalm, ‘The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou on My right hand, till I make Thine enemies Thy footstool2295;’ and in the fifteenth, ‘Thou shalt not leave my soul in hades, neither shalt Thou suffer Thy Holy One to see corruption2296.’ Now that these passages have not David for their scope he himself witnesses, avowing that He who was coming was His own Lord. Nay you yourselves know that He is dead, and His remains are with you. That the Christ then must be such as the Scriptures say, you will plainly confess yourselves. For those announcements come from God, and in them falsehood cannot be. If then ye can state that such a one has come before, and can prove him God from the signs and wonders which he did, ye have reason for maintaining the contest, but if ye are not able to prove His coming, but are expecting such an one still, recognize the true season from Daniel, for his words relate to the present time. But if this present season be that which was of old, afore-announced, and ye have seen what has taken place among us, be sure that this Jesus, whom ye crucified, this is the expected Christ. For David and all the Prophets died, and the sepulchres of all are with you, but that Resurrection which has now taken place, has shewn that the scope of these passages is Jesus. For the crucifixion is denoted by ‘Ye shall see your Life hanging,’ and the wound in the side by the spear answers to ‘He was led as a sheep to the slaughter2297,’ and the resurrection, nay more, the rising of the ancient dead from out their sepulchres (for these most of you have seen), this is, ‘Thou shalt not leave My soul in hades,’ and ‘He swallowed up death in strength2298,’ and again, ‘God will wipe away.’ For the signs which actually took place shew that He who was in a body was God, and also the Life and Lord of death. For it became the Christ, when giving life to others, Himself not to be detained by death; but this could not have happened, had He, as you suppose, been a mere man. But in truth He is the Son of God, for men are all subject to death.