亚流派历史 11-20章

11. The Easterns decline the Council at Rome


Athanasius, however, before these things happened , at the first report of their proceedings, sailed to Rome, knowing the rage of the heretics, and for the purpose of having the Council held as had been determined. And Julius wrote letters to them, and sent the Presbyters Elpidius and Philoxenus, appointing a day , that they might either come, or consider themselves as altogether suspected persons. But as soon as Eusebius and his fellows heard that the trial was to be an Ecclesiastical one, at which no Count would be present, nor soldiers stationed before the doors, and that the proceedings would not be regulated by royal order (for they have always depended upon these things to support them against the Bishops, and without them they have no boldness even to speak); they were so alarmed that they detained the Presbyters till after the appointed time, and pretended an unseemly excuse, that they were not able to come now on account of the war which was begun by the Persians. But this was not the true cause of their delay, but the fears of their own consciences. For what have Bishops to do with war? Or if they were unable on account of the Persians to come to Rome, although it is at a distance and beyond sea, why did they like lions 1 Peter 5:8 go about the parts of the East and those which are near the Persians, seeking who was opposed to them, that they might falsely accuse and banish them?,


12. At any rate, when they had dismissed the Presbyters with this improbable excuse, they said to one another, ‘Since we are unable to get the advantage in an Ecclesiastical trial, let us exhibit our usual audacity.’ Accordingly they write to Philagrius, and cause him after a while to go out with Gregory into Egypt. Whereupon the Bishops are severely scourged and cast into chains. Sarapammon, for instance, Bishop and Confessor, they drive into banishment; Potammon, Bishop and Confessor, who had lost an eye in the persecution, they beat with stripes on the neck so cruelly, that he appeared to be dead before they came to an end. In which condition he was cast aside, and hardly after some hours, being carefully attended and fanned, he revived, God granting him his life; but a short time after he died of the sufferings caused by the stripes, and attained in Christ to the glory of a second martyrdom. And besides these, how many monks were scourged, while Gregory sat by with Balacius the ‘Duke!’ how many Bishops were wounded! How many virgins were beaten!


13. Cruelties of Gregory at Alexandria


After this the wretched Gregory called upon all men to have communion with him. But if you demanded of them communion, they were not worthy of stripes: and if you scourged them as if evil persons, why did you ask it of them as if holy? But he had no other end in view, except to fulfil the designs of them that sent him, and to establish the heresy. Wherefore he became in his folly a murderer and an executioner, injurious, crafty, and profane; in one word, an enemy of Christ. He so cruelly persecuted the Bishop’s aunt, that even when she died he would not allow her to be buried. And this would have been her lot; she would have been cast away without burial, had not they who attended on the corpse carried her out as one of their own kindred. Thus even in such things he showed his profane temper. And again when the widows and other mendicants had received alms, he commanded what had been given them to be seized, and the vessels in which they carried their oil and wine to be broken, that he might not only show impiety by robbery, but in his deeds dishonour the Lord; from whom very shortly he will hear those words, ‘Inasmuch as you have dishonoured these, you have dishonoured Me. ‘

在这之后,卑鄙的贵格利召聚了所有跟他有交通的人。若你要求他们与你有交通,那么他们就不应该挨鞭子:若你把他们当作邪恶的人鞭打,为甚么你还要把他们当作圣洁的人,召聚起来呢? 然而他目光短浅,只想要完成派给他的计划,好建立异端。这就是为甚么,他愚蠢的成为一个谋杀人的人,处决人人的,伤害人人的,狡猾的人,和亵渎神的人。间单的说,就是基督的敌人。他是那么残暴的逼迫主教的婶婶,甚至当她在死后,贵格利还见不得她被安葬。她不允许有葬礼,只赔被抛弃,他们甚至不允许她的亲属搬运她的尸体。这个事件显明了他那种不敬虔的脾气。再者,当那些寡妇们和乞丐领取教会施舍的救济的时候,他还命令夺回那些施舍,用来装油和酒的器皿碎落一地,这样,他就能够不只用明目张胆的劫掠来表明他的不敬虔,他的行为也羞辱的主;他很快的就会从主听见这样的话:‘因着你羞辱了这些人,你就已经羞辱了我。’

14. Profaneness of Gregory and death of Balacius


And many other things he did, which exceed the power of language to describe, and which whoever should hear would think to be incredible. And the reason why he acted thus was, because he had not received his ordination according to ecclesiastical rule, nor had been called to be a Bishop by apostolic tradition ; but had been sent out from court with military power and pomp, as one entrusted with a secular government. Wherefore he boasted rather to be the friend of Governors, than of Bishops and Monks. Whenever, therefore, our Father Antony wrote to him from the mountains, as godliness is an abomination to a sinner, so he abhorred the letters of the holy man. But whenever the Emperor, or a General, or other magistrate, sent him a letter, he was as much overjoyed as those in the Proverbs, of whom the Word has said indignantly, ‘Woe unto them who leave the path of uprightness who rejoice to do evil, and delight in the frowardness of the wicked.’ And so he honoured with presents the bearers of these letters; but once when Antony wrote to him he caused Duke Balacius to spit upon the letter, and to cast it from him. But Divine Justice did not overlook this; for no long time after, when the Duke was on horseback, and on his way to the first halt , the horse turned his head, and biting him on the thigh, threw him off; and within three days he died.


15. Restoration of the Catholics on the Council of Sardica


While they were proceeding in like measures towards all, at Rome about fifty Bishops assembled , and denounced Eusebius and his fellows as persons suspected, afraid to come, and also condemned as unworthy of credit the written statement they had sent; but us they received, and gladly embraced our communion. While these things were taking place, a report of the Council held at Rome, and of the proceedings against the Churches at Alexandria, and through all the East, came to the hearing of the Emperor Constans. He writes to his brother Constantius, and immediately they both determine that a Council shall be called, and matters be brought to a settlement, so that those who had been injured may be released from further suffering, and the injurious be no longer able to perpetrate such outrages. Accordingly there assemble at the city of Sardica both from the East and West to the number of one hundred and seventy Bishops , more or less; those who came from the West were Bishops only, having Hosius for their father, but those from the East brought with them instructors of youth and advocates, Count Musonianus, and Hesychius the Castrensian; on whose account they came with great alacrity, thinking that everything would be again managed by their authority. For thus by means of these persons they have always shown themselves formidable to any whom they wished to intimidate, and have prosecuted their designs against whomsoever they chose. But when they arrived and saw that the cause was to be conducted as simply an ecclesiastical one, without the interference of the Count or of soldiers; when they saw the accusers who came from every church and city, and the evidence which was brought against them, when they saw the venerable Bishops Arius and Asterius , who came up in their company, withdrawing from them and siding with us , and giving an account of their cunning, and how suspicious their conduct was, and that they were fearing the consequences of a trial, lest they should be convicted by us of being false informers, and it should be discovered by those whom they produced in the character of accusers, that they had themselves suggested all they were to say, and were the contrivers of the plot. Perceiving this to be the case, although they had come with great zeal, as thinking that we should be afraid to meet them, yet now when they saw our alacrity, they shut themselves up in the Palace (for they had their abode there), and proceeded to confer with one another in the following manner: ‘We came hither for one result; and we see another; we arrived in company with Counts, and the trial is proceeding without them. We are certainly condemned. You all know the orders that have been given. Athanasius and his fellows have the reports of the proceedings in the Mareotis , by which he is cleared, and we are covered with disgrace. Why then do we delay? Why are we so slow? Let us invent some excuse and be gone, or we shall be condemned if we remain. It is better to suffer the shame of fleeing, than the disgrace of being convicted as false accusers. If we flee, we shall find some means of defending our heresy; and even if they condemn us for our flight, still we have the Emperor as our patron, who will not suffer the people to expel us from the Churches.’

当他们用同样的手段对付中人的时候,约有50为主教聚集在罗马,他们公开谴责Eusebius和他的同党为疑犯,他们不敢来,他们差人送来的书面声明也被定罪为毫无可信度可言的。然而,他们却接纳了我们,希乐的拥抱我们的交通。当这些事情发生的时候,康士坦皇帝听见了关于罗马会议的报告,以及目前针对亚历山大和整个埃及行省之教会的行动。他就立即写信给他的兄弟,康士坦丢,两人决定必须召开一个大会,以解决各样的事端,好叫那些受伤害的不再受苦,伤害人的不再能够继续他们的暴行。有鉴于此,在Sardica就有了一个从东方和西方而来的,约位170位主教的聚集。那些从西方来的只有主教,以Hosius为首,然而那些从东方来的,还带着他们的年轻人和支持者,包括Musonianus伯爵,和Hesychius the Castrensian;因着这个缘故,他们欣然赴会,认为他们将会掌控整个的会议。因为借着这些人的暴行,他们总是看起来是可畏惧的,随意恐吓他们想要恐吓的人,逼迫任何他们所选定的人。然而,当他们到达会场,看见这个会议就是一个全教会的会议,没有任何皇室或士兵的干预;当他们看见告发他们的人来自各个教会和城市,以及用来控告他们的证据,当他们看见于他们同来的,令人尊重的亚流主教和Asterius主教抛弃了他们,站到我们这边,狡猾的耍了他们的时候,他们的行为就变得非常可疑,他们害怕公审的后果,最起码他们会被我们定罪为提供虚假的信息,那些被他们培养成为控告者的人,就会根据他们自己的话,帮我们揭发他们就是各种阴谋的策划者。虽然他们满怀着激情而来,但是当他们看见事态会往这个方向发展的时候,并看见我们的敏锐,他们在皇宫里面变得鸦雀无声(他们自己还住在皇宫里面),然后彼此用这样的方式商谈:‘我们来这里是为了一个目的;现在我们看见事态会往另一个方向发展;我们带着皇室来这里,但是公审却没有皇室的份。我们肯定会被定罪。你们都知道命令已经下来了。亚他那修和他的同党已经获得在Mereotis暴行的报告,他就会清楚在那里发生的事情,而我们就要丢大脸了。为甚么我们还要拖延?为甚么我们还慢吞吞的?要吗我们就再炮制一些新的借口开溜,要吗就留在这里等着被定罪。我们最好忍受逃跑的羞辱,而不要被当作诬告的人而蒙羞。如果我们开溜了,我们还可以找些别的方法来捍卫我们的异端;即便他们定罪我们逃跑,我们还有皇帝作我们的保护人,他可不会让老百姓把我们从教会里面赶出去。’

16. Secession of the Easterns at Sardica


Thus then they reasoned with themselves and Hosius and all the other Bishops repeatedly signified to them the alacrity of Athanasius and his fellows, saying, ‘They are ready with their defense, and pledge themselves to prove you false accusers.’ They said also, ‘If you fear the trial, why did you come to meet us? Either you ought not to have come, or now that you have come, not to flee.’ When they heard this, being still more alarmed, they had recourse to an excuse even more unseemly than that they pretended at Antioch, viz. that they betook themselves to flight because the Emperor had written to them the news of his victory over the Persians. And this excuse they were not ashamed to send by Eustathius a Presbyter of the Sardican Church. But even thus their flight did not succeed according to their wishes; for immediately the holy Council, of which the great Hosius was president, wrote to them plainly, saying, ‘Either come forward and answer the charges which are brought against you, for the false accusations which you have made against others, or know that the Council will condemn you as guilty, and declare Athanasius and his fellows free and clear from all blame.’ Whereupon they were rather impelled to flight by the alarms of conscience, than to compliance with the proposals of the letter; for when they saw those who had been injured by them, they did not even turn their faces to listen to their words, but fled with greater speed.


17. Proceedings of the Council of Sardica


Under these disgraceful and unseemly circumstances their flight took place. And the holy Council, which had been assembled out of more than five and thirty provinces, perceiving the malice of the Arians, admitted Athanasius and his fellows to answer to the charges which the others had brought against them, and to declare the sufferings which they had undergone. And when they had thus made their defense, as we said before, they approved and so highly admired their conduct that they gladly embraced their communion, and wrote letters to all quarters, to the diocese of each, and especially to Alexandria and Egypt, and the Libyas, declaring Athanasius and his friends to be innocent, and free from all blame, and their opponents to be calumniators, evil-doers, and everything rather than Christians. Accordingly they dismissed them in peace; but deposed Stephanus and Menophantus, Acacius and George of Laodicea, Ursacius and Valens, Theodorus and Narcissus. For against Gregory, who had been sent to Alexandria by the Emperor, they put forth a proclamation to the effect that he had never been made a Bishop, and that he ought not to be called a Christian. They therefore declared the ordinations which he professed to have conferred to be void, and commanded that they should not be even named in the Church, on account of their novel and illegal nature. Thus Athanasius and his friends were dismissed in peace (the letters concerning them are inserted at the end on account of their length ), and the Council was dissolved.

在那些见不得人和装模作样的背景下,他们就开溜了。有超过三十五个行省所参与的神圣大会在意识到亚流派的恶意之时,就让亚他那修和他的同伴回答那些针对他们的指控,并宣告他们所经受的苦难。如同我们已经提及过的,当他们如此为自己辩护的时候,他们(指与会的主教们──译者)高度评价这样的行为,并欢喜的拥抱他们(亚他那修和他的同伴──译者)的交通,并写信给世界的各处,所有的教区,特别是亚历山大,埃及和利比亚教区,宣告亚他那修和他的同伴是无辜的,不应当受到任何的指责,而他们的对手乃是毁谤人的,行事邪恶的,根本不配做基督徒。根据主教们在平安中解散了大会;然而,Stephanus与Menophantus,Acacius与George of Laodicea,Ursacius与Valens,Theodorus 与Narcissus被免职。至于皇帝派到亚历山大的贵格利,他们宣布他从未被任命为主教,也不配被称作基督徒。他们根据这点,宣布他颁发的任命是无效的,并因这些任命非法的本质,在教会中根本不该被提及。固此,亚他那修和他的朋友们能够平平安安的离去(关于他们的信件,因为长度的缘故,被加在本文之后),大会随即闭幕。


18. ArianPersecution after Sardica


But the deposed persons, who ought now to have remained quiet, with those who had separated after so disgraceful a flight, were guilty of such conduct, that their former proceedings appear trifling in comparison of these. For when the people of Adrianople would not have communion with them, as men who had fled from the Council, and had proved culprits, they carried their complaints to the Emperor Constantius, and succeeded in causing ten of the laity to be beheaded, belonging to the Manufactory of arms there, Philagrius, who was there again as Count, assisting their designs in this matter also. The tombs of these persons, which we have seen in passing by, are in front of the city. Then as if they had been quite successful, because they had fled lest they should be convicted of false accusation, they prevailed with the Emperor to command whatsoever they wished to be done. Thus they caused two Presbyters and three Deacons to be banished from Alexandria into Armenia. As to Arius and Asterius, the one Bishop of Petræ in Palestine, the other Bishop in Arabia, who had withdrawn from their party, they not only banished into upper Libya, but also caused them to be treated with insult.


19. Tyrannical measures against the Alexandrians


And as to Lucius , Bishop of Adrianople, when they saw that he used great boldness of speech against them, and exposed their impiety, they again, as they had done before, caused him to be bound with iron chains on the neck and hands, and so drove him into banishment, where he died, as they know. And Diodorus a Bishop they remove; but against Olympius of Æni, and Theodulus of Trajanople , both Bishops of Thrace, good and orthodox men, when they perceived their hatred of the heresy, they brought false charges. This Eusebius and his fellows had done first of all, and the Emperor Constantius wrote letters on the subject; and next these men revived the accusation. The purport of the letter was, that they should not only be expelled from their cities and churches, but should also suffer capital punishment, wherever they were discovered. However surprising this conduct may be, it is only in accordance with their principles; for as being instructed by Eusebius and his fellows in such proceedings, and as heirs of their impiety and evil principles, they wished to show themselves formidable at Alexandria, as their fathers had done in Thrace. They caused an order to be written, that the ports and gates of the cities should be watched, lest availing themselves of the permission granted by the Council, the banished persons should return to their churches. They also cause orders to be sent to the magistrates at Alexandria, respecting Athanasius and certain Presbyters, named therein, that if either the Bishop , or any of the others, should be found coming to the city or its borders, the magistrate should have power to behead those who were so discovered. Thus this new Jewish heresy does not only deny the Lord, but has also learned to commit murder.

当他们看见Adrianoplo主教Lucius用毫无畏惧的语言攻击他们,暴露他们的不敬虔之时,他们再次一如既往的,用铁链捆绑他的脖子和手,然后再放逐他,直到他们知道他死了为止。他们所撤职的一位主教,Diodorus;他们也反对Petræ的Olympius,和Trajanople 的Theodulus,这两位都是Thrace的主教,良善和正统的人,当他们获知这两个人对于异端的憎恨后,他们就诬告了这两位主教。优西比乌和他的同党先这样行,然后康士坦丢皇帝再写信论述这些事件;接下来,那些人就重新控告。信件的目的乃是为了让他们能够不单单被从他们的城市和教会中赶出去,而也得尝受死刑。不论这样的行为是如何的惊世骇俗,都是根据他们的道德标准;因为做为优西比乌和他的同党所差派的人,并做为不敬虔和邪恶的子孙,他们要在亚历山大表现出他们的可怖可畏,就像他们的父在Thrace所做的一样。他们发布命令,监视所有的城市大门和港口,唯恐他们受益于大会颁布的许可,让那些被放逐的人回到他们的教会去。他们也使得亚历山大城的治安官受到命令,亚他那修和某些被提名的长老们,只要治安官员发现他们任何一个人进入城市或城市的边界,就有权利砍他们的头。固此这个新的犹太教异端不单单否认了主,还学会了怎么谋杀人。

20. Plot against the Catholic Legates at Antioch


Yet even after this they did not rest; but as the father of their heresy goes about like a lion, seeking whom he may devour, so these obtaining the use of the public posts went about, and whenever they found any that reproached them with their flight, and that hated the Arian heresy, they scourged them, cast them into chains, and caused them to be banished from their country; and they rendered themselves so formidable, as to induce many to dissemble, many to fly into the deserts, rather than willingly even to have any dealings with them. Such were the enormities which their madness prompted them to commit after their flight. Moreover they perpetrate another outrageous act, which is indeed in accordance with the character of their heresy, but is such as we never heard of before, nor is likely soon to take place again, even among the more dissolute of the Gentiles, much less among Christians. The holy Council had sent as Legates the Bishops Vincentius of Capua (this is the Metropolis of Campania), and Euphrates of Agrippina (this is the Metropolis of Upper Gaul), that they might obtain the Emperor’s consent to the decision of the Council, that the Bishops should return to their Churches, inasmuch as he was the author of their expulsion. The most religious Constans had also written to his brother , and supported the cause of the Bishops. But these admirable men, who are equal to any act of audacity, when they saw the two Legates at Antioch, consulted together and formed a plot, which Stephanus undertook by himself to execute, as being a suitable instrument for such purposes. Accordingly they hire a common harlot, even at the season of the most holy Easter, and stripping her introduce her by night into the apartment of the Bishop Euphrates. The harlot who thought that it was a young man who had sent to invite her, at first willingly accompanied them; but when they thrust her in, and she saw the man asleep and unconscious of what was going on, and when presently she distinguished his features, and beheld the face of an old man, and the array of a Bishop, she immediately cried aloud, and declared that violence was used towards her. They desired her to be silent, and to lay a false charge against the Bishop; and so when it was day, the matter was reported abroad, and all the city ran together; and those who came from the Palace were in great commotion, wondering at the report which had been spread abroad, and demanding that it should not be passed by in silence. An enquiry, therefore, was made, and her master gave information concerning those who came to fetch the harlot, and these informed against Stephanus; for they were his Clergy. Stephanus, therefore, is deposed , and Leontius the eunuch appointed in his place, only that the Arian heresy may not want a supporter.