To Cledonius the Priest Against Apollinarius.


至CLEDONIUS 教士-駁斥亞波 理拿流

To our most reverend and God-beloved brother and fellow priest Cledonius, Gregory, greeting in the Lord.


I desire to learn what is this fashion of innovation in things Concerning the Church, which allows anyone who likes, or the passerby, as the Bible says, to tear asunder the flock that has been well led, and to plunder it by larcenous attacks, or rather by piratical and fallacious teachings. For if our present assailants had any ground for condemning us in regard of the faith, it would not have been right for them, even in that case, to have ventured on such a course without giving us notice. They ought rather to have first persuaded us, or to have been willing to be persuaded by us (if at least any account is to be taken of us as fearing God, labouring for the faith, and helping the Church), and then, if at all, to innovate; but then perhaps there would be an excuse for their outrageous conduct. But since our faith has been proclaimed, both in writing and without writing, here and in distant parts, in times of danger and of safety, how comes it that some make such attempts, and that others keep silence?


The most grievous part of it is not (though this too is shocking) that the men instil their own heresy into simpler souls by means of those who are worse; but that they also tell lies about us and say that we share their opinions and sentiments; thus baiting their hooks, and by this cloak villainously fulfilling their will, and making our simplicity, which looked upon them as brothers and not as foes, into a support of their wickedness. And not only so, but they also assert, as I am told, that they have been received by the Western Synod, by which they were formerly condemned, as is well known to everyone. If, however, those who hold the views of Apollinarius have either now or formerly been received, let them prove it and we will be content. For it is evident that they can only have been so received as assenting to the Orthodox Faith, for this were an impossibility on any other terms. And they can surely prove it, either by the minutes of the Synod, or by Letters of Communion, for this is the regular custom of Synods. But if it is mere words, and an invention of their own, devised for the sake of appearances and to give them weight with the multitude through the credit of the persons, teach them to hold their tongues, and confute them; for we believe that such a task is well suited to your manner of life and orthodoxy. Do not let the men deceive themselves and others with the assertion that the Man of the Lord, as they call Him, Who is rather our Lord and God, is without human mind. For we do not sever the Man from the Godhead, but we lay down as a dogma the Unity and Identity of Person, Who of old was not Man but God, and the Only Son before all ages, unmingled with body or anything corporeal; but Who in these last days has assumed Manhood also for our salvation; passible in His Flesh, impassible in His Godhead; circumscript in the body, uncircumscript in the Spirit; at once earthly and heavenly, tangible and intangible, comprehensible and incomprehensible; that by One and the Same Person, Who was perfect Man and also God, the entire humanity fallen through sin might be created anew.

最令人伤心得部分并不是(虽然这件事已经够让人惊讶不已)那些人拼命的要把异端思想透过那些更为邪恶的人灌输到那些单纯的魂里面;他们还散布关于我们的谎言,说我们也同意他们的关点与看法;他们用他们的书作为诱饵,用这个作为遮盖以邪恶的方式完成他们的意图,并把我们视他们为弟兄而不是仇人的单纯态度当作支持他们邪恶行为的动力。不仅仅如此,我被告知,他们还坚称,就是他们已经被原先定罪他们的西方教会接纳了,每个人都知道这件事。然而,若坚持亚波理拿流关点的人被接纳,让他们证明,好让我们满足。因为他们乃是因肯定正统信仰而被接纳,不可能根据其他的条件。他们肯定能够永大会的纪录或交通的信函来证明,因为这是大会的通例。若这些只不过是他们发明的文字游戏,被设计来让他们透过各人的信誉更能够影响群众,那么我们就要叫他们闭嘴并要申斥他们;因为我们相信这个任务完全符合您生活并正统的风格。别让那些人再继续再用「主的人(Man of the Lord)」蛊惑自己与他人,他们如此称呼我们的主与神,认为祂不具有人类的心思。因为我们并不是在服侍一位从神格(Godhead)来的人,我们乃是在指定关与位格的联合与不同之教义,那位原有的并不是人,而是神,并在万世前的独生子,决不与身体任何物质的东西调合(unmingled,意为不混合、不改变,参考迦克顿信条-译者);祂在末世的日子为了我们救恩的缘故披上了人性;在祂的肉身中受苦,在祂的神格中不感觉痛苦;受限于身体中,在灵(Spirit)中完全不受限制;曾经又是属地并属天,有形并无形,可被理解又不可被理解;整个因罪堕落的人类借着这一位,祂那同时是完整的人又是神的位格重新被造。

If anyone does not believe that Holy Mary is the Mother of God, he is severed from the Godhead. If anyone should assert that He passed through the Virgin as through a channel, and was not at once divinely and humanly formed in her (divinely, because without the intervention of a man; humanly, because in accordance with the laws of gestation), he is in like manner godless. If any assert that the Manhood was formed and afterward was clothed with the Godhead, he too is to be condemned. For this were not a Generation of God, but a shirking of generation. If any introduce the notion of Two Sons, one of God the Father, the other of the Mother, and discredits the Unity and Identity, may he lose his part in the adoption promised to those who believe aright. For God and Man are two natures, as also soul and body are; but there are not two Sons or two Gods. For neither in this life are there two manhoods; though Paul speaks in some such language of the inner and outer man. And (if I am to speak concisely) the Saviour is made of elements which are distinct from one another (for the invisible is not the same with the visible, nor the timeless with that which is subject to time), yet He is not two Persons. God forbid! For both natures are one by the combination, the Deity being made Man, and the Manhood deified or however one should express it. And I say different Elements, because it is the reverse of what is the case in the Trinity; for There we acknowledge different Persons so as not to confound the persons; but not different Elements, for the Three are One and the same in Godhead.


If any should say that it wrought in Him by grace as in a Prophet, but was not and is not united with Him in Essence — let him be empty of the Higher Energy, or rather full of the opposite. If any worship not the Crucified, let him be Anathema and be numbered among the Deicides. If any assert that He was made perfect by works, or that after His Baptism, or after His Resurrection from the dead, He was counted worthy of an adoptive Sonship, like those whom the Greeks interpolate as added to the ranks of the gods, let him be anathema. For that which has a beginning or a progress or is made perfect, is not God, although the expressions may be used of His gradual manifestation. If any assert that He has now put off His holy flesh, and that His Godhead is stripped of the body, and deny that He is now with His body and will come again with it, let him not see the glory of His Coming. For where is His body now, if not with Him Who assumed it? For it is not laid by in the sun, according to the babble of the Manichæans, that it should be honoured by a dishonour; nor was it poured forth into the air and dissolved, as is the nature of a voice or the flow of an odour, or the course of a lightning flash that never stands. Where in that case were His being handled after the Resurrection, or His being seen hereafter by them that pierced Him, for Godhead is in its nature invisible. Nay; He will come with His body — so I have learned — such as He was seen by His Disciples in the Mount, or as he showed Himself for a moment, when his Godhead overpowered the carnality. And as we say this to disarm suspicion, so we write the other to correct the novel teaching. If anyone assert that His flesh came down from heaven, and is not from hence, nor of us though above us, let him be anathema. For the words, The Second Man is the Lord from Heaven; 1 Corinthians 15:47 and, As is the Heavenly, such are they that are Heavenly; and, No man has ascended up into Heaven save He which came down from Heaven, even the Son of Man which is in Heaven; John 3:13 and the like, are to be understood as said on account of the Union with the heavenly; just as that All Things were made by Christ, John 1:3 and that Christ dwells in your hearts Ephesians 3:17 is said, not of the visible nature which belongs to God, but of what is perceived by the mind, the names being mingled like the natures, and flowing into one another, according to the law of their intimate union.

若有人说,恩典在祂里面就像在先知里面一样,并没有在苏志中与祂联合为一-让这个人得不到更高的能力(Higher Energy,指神的能力,即没有神-译者)或充满相反的能力。若任何人不敬拜那位被钉十字架的,让他被咒逐并被当作注定灭亡的。若任何人坚称祂乃是透过(神的)工作,或在祂的受浸后,或在祂从死人中复活后才变得完全,并配获得养子的名分,就像希腊人窜改这样的记载并把祂算为神祇中的一个一样,让他被咒逐。因为那位有使的,并有过程的,或被造为万美的,并不是神,虽然这样的描述可以被用在祂逐渐的彰显上。若有人坚称祂如今披上了它神圣的肉身,祂的神格从祂的身体被剥离出来,并否认祂如今并在祂再来的时候乃是带着祂的身体的人,让他看不见祂再来时候的荣耀,因,若祂不与祂所穿上的身体同在,为祂身体今日在那里呢?祂的身体若不是像摩尼教的梦呓所宣称的晒在太阳下,那就会引着被侮辱而被尊敬;它也不可能像被倒到空气中就被分解了,如同声音或气味一样,或如同一闪即逝的闪电一样。若是那样,祂的存有在祂的复活后,或在祂被矛刺后在哪里呢?因为神格的性质是不可见的。不!祂将会带着祂的身体再来-这是我所学习的-就是如同祂在山上被祂的门徒看见的时候,或当祂神格的能力完全胜过祂的肉身并将自己显明出来的时刻一样。这就是我们所说得,可以去除任何的疑问,好叫我们可以彼此写信,纠正那些如同小说般的教导。若有任何人坚信祂的肉身乃是从天上来的,而不是从地上来的,或不是属于我们的,而是超越我们的,让他被咒逐。因为那些话,就是第二个人是从天上来的主(The Second Man is the Lord from Heaven);以及第二个人乃是属天的,都是那些属天之人的话;并且,除了那位从天上而来的,即便是那位在天上的人子(the Son of Man),没有人曾经上升到天里面去;还有类似的说法,就是被理解为,论到属天的联合等等;就如同万有都是借着基督造的;并且那位住在你们心中的基督,并不是被称作属于神的可见的性质,而是属于心思所能理解的性质,这些名字就像神人二性一样被调合在一起,根据它们间亲密的关系,从这里被倒到那里去。

If anyone has put his trust in Him as a Man without a human mind, he is really bereft of mind, and quite unworthy of salvation. For that which He has not assumed He has not healed; but that which is united to His Godhead is also saved. If only half Adam fell, then that which Christ assumes and saves may be half also; but if the whole of his nature fell, it must be united to the whole nature of Him that was begotten, and so be saved as a whole. Let them not, then, begrudge us our complete salvation, or clothe the Saviour only with bones and nerves and the portraiture of humanity. For if His Manhood is without soul, even the Arians admit this, that they may attribute His Passion to the Godhead, as that which gives motion to the body is also that which suffers. But if He has a soul, and yet is without a mind, how is He man, for man is not a mindless animal? And this would necessarily involve that while His form and tabernacle was human, His soul should be that of a horse or an ox, or some other of the brute creation. This, then, would be what He saves; and I have been deceived by the Truth, and led to boast of an honour which had been bestowed upon another. But if His Manhood is intellectual and nor without mind, let them cease to be thus really mindless. But, says such an one, the Godhead took the place of the human intellect. How does this touch me? For Godhead joined to flesh alone is not man, nor to soul alone, nor to both apart from intellect, which is the most essential part of man. Keep then the whole man, and mingle Godhead therewith, that you may benefit me in my completeness. But, he asserts, He could not contain Two perfect Natures. Not if you only look at Him in a bodily fashion. For a bushel measure will not hold two bushels, nor will the space of one body hold two or more bodies. But if you will look at what is mental and incorporeal, remember that I in my one personality can contain soul and reason and mind and the Holy Spirit; and before me this world, by which I mean the system of things visible and invisible, contained Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. For such is the nature of intellectual Existences, that they can mingle with one another and with bodies, incorporeally and invisibly. For many sounds are comprehended by one ear; and the eyes of many are occupied by the same visible objects, and the smell by odours; nor are the senses narrowed by each other, or crowded out, nor the objects of sense diminished by the multitude of the perceptions. But where is there mind of man or angel so perfect in comparison of the Godhead that the presence of the greater must crowd out the other? The light is nothing compared with the sun, nor a little damp compared with a river, that we must first do away with the lesser, and take the light from a house, or the moisture from the earth, to enable it to contain the greater and more perfect. For how shall one thing contain two completenesses, either the house, the sunbeam and the sun, or the earth, the moisture and the river? 

若有任何人相信祂作为一个人,确没有人的心思,剥夺了祂的心思,那么他就不配得到救赎。因为祂所没有取得的,祂就不能医治;凡与祂的神格联合的,就被拯救。若只有半个亚当堕落,基督当取得并医治的,也当是半个亚当;但是若亚当的整个性质堕落了,那么他的整个性质就当与那位被生的之性质联合,而完全得救。别让那些人忌妒我们的万全救恩,或只为救主装上了骨头与神经,并一个人的外观。因为若祂作为人二没有心思,即便亚流派也这么认为,那么他们就能把祂的受苦算在祂的神格上,就好像把行动归给那个受苦的身体一样。但是,若祂有一个魂,这个魂确没有心思,祂又怎么可能是一个人呢?因为人不是一个没有思想的畜生。这就意味着,虽然祂的构成以及帐幕(约翰一14-译者)必须是人,祂的魂却是像一匹马,一头牛,甚至某种的野兽一样。那么,祂还能够拯救什么呢?我被我的信仰欺骗了,以至于夸耀那个当被赋予另一种生物的荣耀。但是,若祂的人性是理性的,并不是没有心思的,让他们别再做那种缺乏理性的人(即白痴-译者)。但是,若论说神取代了人的理性。这又跟我有什么关系呢?因为与肉身联合的神格不是人,也不是魂,也不能缺少理性,就是人最为重要的部分。让祂做一个完整,并与神格调合的人吧!好叫你能够从我的完整得益。但是,他还坚称,祂不可能拥有两个完整的性质。你不会只在身体的角度中看祂。一个英斗的容器无法装两个英斗的事物。但是若你从心思并非物质的角度看祂,请记得在我的位格中可以包括魂、理性、心思与圣灵;在我之前是这个世界,我指得是由看得见的事物并包含父、子与圣灵之事物所构成的系统。因为那乃是理性存有的本质(the nature of intellectual Existences)它们可以在彼此之间,并与身体以不可见的方式相调和成为一。因为一只耳朵可以听见许多声音;许多人的眼睛可以同时被同样的一个看得见的事物所占有,人也可以同时闻到许多气味;没有任何一种感观是狭窄的,只能被一件事物挤得水泄不通,也没有任何感觉得到的事物会被许多不同的感应所削减。然而,人或天使的心思与神相较是那么的完全以至于更大的那个会淹没较小的那个?光无法与太阳相比拟,湿地也无法与河流向比拟,使得我们必须先抛弃较小的,从个房子中取得光,或从地球取得湿气,好使得我们能够容纳的下更大并更为完全的事物。因为一件事物怎么可能容的下两个完全(completenesses)?不论是房子,光线与太阳,湿气与河流。

Here is matter for inquiry; for indeed the question is worthy of much consideration. Do they not know, then, that what is perfect by comparison with one thing may be imperfect by comparison with another, as a hill compared with a mountain, or a grain of mustard seed with a bean or any other of the larger seeds, although it may be called larger than any of the same kind? Or, if you like, an Angel compared with God, or a man with an Angel. So our mind is perfect and commanding, but only in respect of soul and body; not absolutely perfect; and a servant and a subject of God, not a sharer of His Princedom and honour. So Moses was a God to Pharaoh, Exodus 7:1 but a servant of God, Numbers 12:7 as it is written; and the stars which illumine the night are hidden by the Sun, so much that you could not even know of their existence by daylight; and a little torch brought near a great blaze is neither destroyed, nor seen, nor extinguished; but is all one blaze, the bigger one prevailing over the other.


But, it may be said, our mind is subject to condemnation. What then of our flesh? Is that not subject to condemnation? You must therefore either set aside the latter on account of sin, or admit the former on account of salvation. If He assumed the worse that He might sanctify it by His incarnation, may He not assume the better that it may be sanctified by His becoming Man? If the clay was leavened and has become a new lump, O you wise men, shall not the Image be leavened and mingled with God, being deified by His Godhead? And I will add this also: If the mind was utterly rejected, as prone to sin and subject to damnation, and for this reason He assumed a body but left out the mind, then there is an excuse for them who sin with the mind; for the witness of God — according to you — has shown the impossibility of healing it. Let me state the greater results. You, my good sir, dishonour my mind (you a Sarcolater, if I am an Anthropolater ) that you may tie God down to the Flesh, since He cannot be otherwise tied; and therefore you take away the wall of partition. But what is my theory, who am but an ignorant man, and no Philosopher. Mind is mingled with mind, as nearer and more closely related, and through it with flesh, being a Mediator between God and carnality.


Further let us see what is their account of the assumption of Manhood, or the assumption of Flesh, as they call it. If it was in order that God, otherwise incomprehensible, might be comprehended, and might converse with men through His Flesh as through a veil, their mask and the drama which they represent is a pretty one, not to say that it was open to Him to converse with us in other ways, as of old, in the burning bush Exodus 3:2 and in the appearance of a man. Genesis 18:5 But if it was that He might destroy the condemnation by sanctifying like by like, then as He needed flesh for the sake of the flesh which had incurred condemnation, and soul for the sake of our soul, so, too, He needed mind for the sake of mind, which not only fell in Adam, but was the first to be affected, as the doctors say of illnesses. For that which received the command was that which failed to keep the command, and that which failed to keep it was that also which dared to transgress; and that which transgressed was that which stood most in need of salvation; and that which needed salvation was that which also He took upon Him. Therefore, Mind was taken upon Him. This has now been demonstrated, whether they like it or no, by, to use their own expression, geometrical and necessary proofs. But you are acting as if, when a man’s eye had been injured and his foot had been injured in consequence, you were to attend to the foot and leave the eye uncared for; or as if, when a painter had drawn something badly, you were to alter the picture, but to pass over the artist as if he had succeeded. But if they, overwhelmed by these arguments, take refuge in the proposition that it is possible for God to save man even apart from mind, why, I suppose that it would be possible for Him to do so also apart from flesh by a mere act of will, just as He works all other things, and has wrought them without body. Take away, then, the flesh as well as the mind, that your monstrous folly may be complete. But they are deceived by the latter, and, therefore, they run to the flesh, because they do not know the custom of Scripture. We will teach them this also. For what need is there even to mention to those who know it, the fact that everywhere in Scripture he is called Man, and the Son of Man?


If, however, they rely on the passage, The Word was made Flesh and dwelt among us, John 1:14 and because of this erase the noblest part of Man (as cobblers do the thicker part of skins) that they may join together God and Flesh, it is time for them to say that God is God only of flesh, and not of souls, because it is written, As You have given Him power over all Flesh, and Unto You shall all Flesh come; and Let all Flesh bless His holy Name, meaning every Man. Or, again, they must suppose that our fathers went down into Egypt without bodies and invisible, and that only the Soul of Joseph was imprisoned by Pharaoh, because it is written, They went down into Egypt with threescore and fifteen Souls, Acts 7:14 and The iron entered into his Soul, a thing which could not be bound. They who argue thus do not know that such expressions are used by Synecdoche, declaring the whole by the part, as when Scripture says that the young ravens call upon God, to indicate the whole feathered race; or Pleiades, Hesperus, and Arcturus Job 9:9 are mentioned, instead of all the Stars and His Providence over them.

然而,若他们依赖约翰福音一14,话称了肉身 并住在我们中间,并且因为这个缘故,人尊贵的部分就被抹煞了(就如同皮革匠抹掉皮革较厚的部分一样),好叫他们能够把神和肉身联结起来,那么这就是他们必须宣告神只是肉身的神,而不是魂的神的时刻了,因为经上记着,「你已经赐给祂胜过肉体的大能,」并「若有的肉身都必须来到你面前,」并「让所有的肉身赞美祂的圣名,」(这三节使用得是七十士译本的经文-译者)就是所有的人。喔,还有!他们必须假设我们下到埃及的列祖是没有身体的,也是不可见的,因为只有约瑟的魂被法老下到监里,因为经上记着,「他们下到埃及的是七十五个魂,」并「铁进入了他的魂里面」(这节使用得是七十士译本的经文-译者)。他们辩称他们不知道这样的表述是隐喻,用一部份来代表整个,就如同圣经说小乌鸦呼求神就代表了所有羽毛的动物一样;或者,就像昂星团,金星,并大角星而不是众星并祂的看护被提及一样。

Moreover, in no other way was it possible for the Love of God toward us to be manifested than by making mention of our flesh, and that for our sake He descended even to our lower part. For that flesh is less precious than soul, everyone who has a spark of sense will acknowledge. And so the passage, The Word was made Flesh, seems to me to be equivalent to that in which it is said that He was made sin, 2 Corinthians 5:21 or a curse Galatians 3:13 for us; not that the Lord was transformed into either of these, how could He be? But because by taking them upon Him He took away our sins and bore our iniquities. This, then, is sufficient to say at the present time for the sake of clearness and of being understood by the many. And I write it, not with any desire to compose a treatise, but only to check the progress of deceit; and if it is thought well, I will give a fuller account of these matters at greater length.


But there is a matter which is graver than these, a special point which it is necessary that I should not pass over. I would they were even cut off that trouble you, Galatians 5:12 and would reintroduce a second Judaism, and a second circumcision, and a second system of sacrifices. For if this be done, what hinders Christ also being born again to set them aside, and again being betrayed by Judas, and crucified and buried, and rising again, that all may be fulfilled in the same order, like the Greek system of cycles, in which the same revolutions of the stars bring round the same events? For what the method of selection is, in accordance with which some of the events are to occur and others to be omitted, let these wise men who glory in the multitude of their books show us.


But since, puffed up by their theory of the Trinity, they falsely accuse us of being unsound in the Faith and entice the multitude, it is necessary that people should know that Apollinarius, while granting the Name of Godhead to the Holy Ghost, did not preserve the Power of the Godhead. For to make the Trinity consist of Great, Greater, and Greatest, as of Light, Ray, and Sun, the Spirit and the Son and the Father (as is clearly stated in his writings), is a ladder of Godhead not leading to Heaven, but down from Heaven. But we recognize God the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, and these not as bare titles, dividing inequalities of ranks or of power, but as there is one and the same title, so there is one nature and one substance in the Godhead.


But if anyone who thinks we have spoken rightly on this subject reproaches us with holding communion with heretics, let him prove that we are open to this charge, and we will either convince him or retire. But it is not safe to make any innovation before judgment is given, especially in a matter of such importance, and connected with so great issues. We have protested and continue to protest this before God and men. And not even now, be well assured, should we have written this, if we had not seen that the Church was being torn asunder and divided, among their other tricks, by their present synagogue of vanity. But if anyone when we say and protest this, either from some advantage they will thus gain, or through fear of men, or monstrous littleness of mind, or through some neglect of pastors and governors, or through love of novelty and proneness to innovations, rejects us as unworthy of credit, and attaches himself to such men, and divides the noble body of the Church, he shall bear his judgment, whoever he may be, Galatians 5:10 and shall give account to God in the day of judgment. Matthew 12:36 But if their long books, and their new Psalters, contrary to that of David, and the grace of their metres, are taken for a third Testament, we too will compose Psalms, and will write much in metre. For we also think we have the spirit of God, 1 Corinthians 7:40 if indeed this is a gift of the Spirit, and not a human novelty. This I will that thou declare publicly, that we may not be held responsible, as overlooking such an evil, and as though this wicked doctrine received food and strength from our indifference.

但是,若有任何人认为我们在这个题目上是正确的,但抨击我们跟异端交通,让他证明我们确实犯规了,好让我们说服他或投降收兵。然而,在审判前就发明一大对稀奇古怪的论点是不安全的,特别是在这么重要的议题上。我们已经抗议过,并继续在神与人面前抗议。不仅仅是现在,如果我们没有看见教会因着他们其它的诡计,并透过他们现今虚妄的聚集,而被撕裂的四分五裂,我们肯定会把这一切都写下来。但是,当我们抗议的同时,若有任何人想要占我们的便宜,或恐吓别人,或图谋不轨,或无视于教会的牧人并世俗的官员,或透过稀奇古怪的爱并发明新的控告,把我们当做没有信用的骗子拒绝之,或附和那样的人去分裂教会尊贵的身体,不管他是谁,他都会被祂所审判。但是若他们渴望新撰写的书籍并与戴维所写不同的新编诗集,并认为他们要根据一本第三约(a third Testament)来决定他们领受的恩典,我们也会写诗,也能够撰写那样的标准。因为,如果这确实是圣灵的恩赐,而不是人泡制的小说,我们也认为我们有神的灵了。我会把你公诸于世,这样我们就没有责任了,因为我们确实查出了一个邪恶的人,他通过这个邪恶的教义获得果腹之物,并从我们之间的差异中获得能力。